Mapping The measurement of surface features and configuration of an area or a region, and the graphic expression of those features. Surveying is the art and science of measurement of points on, above, or under the surface of the Earth. Topographic maps show the natural and cultural features of a piece of land. The natural features include configuration (relief), hydrography, and vegetation. The cultural features include roads, buildings, bridges, political boundaries, and the sectional breakdown of the land. Topographic maps are used by a wide variety of people, such as engineers designing a new road; backpackers finding their way into remote areas; scientists describing soil or vegetation types, wildlife habitat, or hydrology; and military personnel planning field operations.
the main physical features on the ground, such as rivers, lakes, reservoirs, roads, forests or large rocks; or the various features of the fish-farm, such as ponds, dams, dikes, drainage ditches or sources of water;
the difference in height between land forms, such as valleys, plains, hills or slopes; or the difference in height between the features of the fish-farm. These differences are called the vertical relief
1.Determining enough horizontal location and elevation (usually called side shots) of ground points to provide enough data for plotting when the map is prepared.
2.Locating natural and man-made features that may be required by the purpose of the survey. Computing distances, angles, and elevations.
3.Topographic surveys are commonly identified with horizontal and/or vertical control of third- and lower-order accuracies.
Now we go for the topographic map which has following procedures to follow:
1.Initial work is establishing horizontal and vertical control which tends serve as the framework of the survey
2. Data for plotting when the map is prepared by determining enough horizontal location and elevation
3. Locating natural and man-made features that may be required by the purpose of the survey with detailed features
4. Computing distances, angles, and elevations
5. Drawing the topographic map Topographic surveys are commonly